Membuat Ransum Sendiri (Self Mixing Formula) Untuk Bebek

Seiring dengan pesatnya perkembangan dunia perunggasan petelur di Indonesia telah terjadi peningkatan jumlah perusahaan peternakan unggas dalam skala usaha besar maupun  kecil. Oleh karena faktor tersebut  sudah  tentu juga akan meningkatkan jumlah permintaan ransum/konsentrat pabrik . Harga ransum/konsentrat pabrik pun cenderung terus meningkat karena permintaan lebih besar dari penawaran dan juga disebabkan oleh faktor bahan baku yang sebagian besar masih mengandalkan impor dari luar negeri. Kenaikan harga ransum / konsentrat pabrik kadang-kadang menimbulkan kelesuan dunia peternakan unggas .

Sebenarnya peternak  unggas dapat mengurangi resiko fluktuasi harga pakan / konsentrat pabrik  yang begitu terus naik melambung tinggi dengan cara membuat ransum jadi sendiri ( self mixing formula ). Tujuan dari membuat ransum sendiri adalah untuk mendapatkan harga yang lebih ekonomis dengan kualitas pakan yang dihasilkan dapat memenuhi standar kebutuhan nutrisi dan kesehatan, yaitu  mengandung zat-zat protein, karbohidrat, lemak, kalsium, vitamin, mineral, dan air dalam keseimbangan yang cukup.

Untuk para peternak bebek petelur, self mixing formula sangat memungkinan untuk dilakukan karena bahan baku pakan yang dapat digunakan lebih bervariatif (lebih banyak) dan cara pembuatannya lebih sederhana. Karena pakan bebek yang baik adalah  berupa tepung maka bahan-bahan yang sudah kita hitung dan diketahui kandungannya selanjutnya dihaluskan menjadi tepung (digiling halus) setelah itu dicampur sampai rata .

Ada berbagai macam cara (metode) untuk menghitung formula ransum :

Metode Coba-Coba : cara yang paling mudah tetapi membutuhkan waktu yang  lama  dan biaya yang cukup besar.

Metode  Matrik: perhitungan secara matematika matrik kebalikan, sulit bila jumlah bahan lebih dari tiga.

Metode Simultan : perhitungannya lebih matematis dibandingkan dengan metode coba-coba.

Metode Linier: metode yang juga disebut metode biaya termurah, perhitungannya harusmenggunakan komputer, dan hasilnya lebih mendekati keakuratan.

Salah satu syarat penting untuk dapat menyusun ransum, pertama kita harus mengetahui kandungan kebutuhan ransum yang dibutuhkan oleh ternak kita.

Misalnya, untuk  ransum yang dibutuhkan oleh bebek petelur adalah: protein 17% – 19% , kalori 2700 – 2900 kkal , kalsium 3% , phospor <0.6%

Kunci keberhasilan membuat ransum sendiri (self mixing) bukan tergantung dari cara kita menghitung atau metode/formula yang digunakan, melainkan bagaimana kita dapat menaksir atau mengetahui kandungan dari bahan bahan yang kita gunakan untuk dijadikan ransum ternak kita.

Menurut saya tidak ada formula ransum yang terhebat. Justru yang terhebat adalah strategi untuk mengungkap dan mengolah bahan pakan potensial setempat (berada di sekeliling kita) untuk dijadikan  pakan aman dan sehat atau produk ekonomis yang mengandung zat-zat yang dibutuhkan oleh ternak kita.

Contoh self mixing formula untuk pakan itik petelur dengan kandungan :

  • Protein ± 19%
  • Kalori 2800 – 2900 kkal
  • Kalsium ± 3%
  • Phospor ± 0.6%

Dengan bahan-bahan sebagai berikut :

NAMA BAHAN

  1. Katul orisinil (PK2)………………………………….34,5 kg
  2. Kebi*…………………………………………………….39,5 kg
  3. MBM (tepung daging & tulang, protein 50%)…..10 kg
  4. Bungkil Kedelai  (protein 44% up)………………..5,5 kg
  5. Tepung Ikan lokal (protein 40% up)……………..5,5 kg
  6. Grit (tepung cangkang bekicot)……………………4,5 kg
  7. Top Mix………………………………………………….0,2 kg
  8. Promix…………………………………………………..0,3 kg

*Kebi adalah bentuk jadi dari campuran pakan sebagai sumber kalori yang bisa dibuat dari: menir, katul, gaplek , roti kadaluarsa, karak nasi dll

Mudah-mudahan tulisan saya ini dapat sedikit menjembatani informasi untuk dapat membuka wawasan tentang dunia peternakan khususnya itik/bebek di negeri ini.

Penulis: Rikma, peternak bebek, Blitar
Editor : Faishal

Untuk bahan pembuatan ransum klik di sini

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Membuat Ransum Sendiri (Self Mixing Formula) Untuk Bebek — 66 Comments

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  60. mohon informasi kandungan nutrisi bahan alternatif pakan unggas seperti;
    1. kulit kedelai limbah pembuatan tempe,
    2. Ampas kelapa sisa perasan santan
    3. Brondolan (kepala) teri ikan asin
    4. Mie afkir, aking (nasi yg dikeringkan)
    dan yg lainnya. Terimakasih.

  61. artikel yg sip, thx, n mo tanya 1. bgaimana cara buat kebi, komposisinya dan jdi brapa kandungan protein n energinya 2. Dimana sy bisa dapatkan tepung ikan dan bungkil kedelai kualitas baik (diketahui kandungan protein dan energinya) 3. Thx.. nb : sy peternak itik posisi Kab PATI Jateng